|Title||The incidence of pregnancy hypertension in India, Pakistan, Mozambique, and Nigeria: A prospective population-level analysis.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Magee, LA, Sharma, S, Nathan, H, Adetoro, OO, Bellad, MB, Goudar, S, Macuacua, SE, Mallapur, A, Qureshi, R, Sevene, E, Sotunsa, J, Valá, A, Lee, T, Payne, BA, Vidler, M, Shennan, A, Bhutta, ZA, von Dadelszen, P|
|Corporate Authors||CLIP Study Group|
|Date Published||2019 Apr|
BACKGROUND: Most pregnancy hypertension estimates in less-developed countries are from cross-sectional hospital surveys and are considered overestimates. We estimated population-based rates by standardised methods in 27 intervention clusters of the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomised trials.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: CLIP-eligible pregnant women identified in their homes or local primary health centres (2013-2017). Included here are women who had delivered by trial end and received a visit from a community health worker trained to provide supplementary hypertension-oriented care, including standardised blood pressure (BP) measurement. Hypertension (BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) was defined as chronic (first detected at <20 weeks gestation) or gestational (≥20 weeks); pre-eclampsia was gestational hypertension plus proteinuria or a pre-eclampsia-defining complication. A multi-level regression model compared hypertension rates and types between countries (p < 0.05 considered significant). In 28,420 pregnancies studied, women were usually young (median age 23-28 years), parous (53.7%-77.3%), with singletons (≥97.5%), and enrolled at a median gestational age of 10.4 (India) to 25.9 weeks (Mozambique). Basic education varied (22.8% in Pakistan to 57.9% in India). Pregnancy hypertension incidence was lower in Pakistan (9.3%) than India (10.3%), Mozambique (10.9%), or Nigeria (10.2%) (p = 0.001). Most hypertension was diastolic only (46.4% in India, 72.7% in Pakistan, 61.3% in Mozambique, and 63.3% in Nigeria). At first presentation with elevated BP, gestational hypertension was most common diagnosis (particularly in Mozambique [8.4%] versus India [6.9%], Pakistan [6.5%], and Nigeria [7.1%]; p < 0.001), followed by pre-eclampsia (India [3.8%], Nigeria [3.0%], Pakistan [2.4%], and Mozambique [2.3%]; p < 0.001) and chronic hypertension (especially in Mozambique [2.5%] and Nigeria [2.8%], compared with India [1.2%] and Pakistan [1.5%]; p < 0.001). Inclusion of additional diagnoses of hypertension and related complications, from household surveys or facility record review (unavailable in Nigeria), revealed higher hypertension incidence: 14.0% in India, 11.6% in Pakistan, and 16.8% in Mozambique; eclampsia was rare (<0.5%).
CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy hypertension is common in less-developed settings. Most women in this study presented with gestational hypertension amenable to surveillance and timed delivery to improve outcomes.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is a secondary analysis of a clinical trial - ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01911494.
|Alternate Journal||PLoS Med.|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC6461222|